South African National Survey of Research and Experimental Development
The Department of Science and Technology commissions the HSRC to conduct the annual Survey of National Research and Experimental Development inputs, according to the guidelines laid down in the Frascati Manual
The R&D Report has been approved by StatsSA and the DG for public release.
This site and the attached, downloadable documents, cover the methodology employed and the results for the five sectors covered in the Surveys. The 2001/02 Survey constituted the first official survey since that of 1997/98. Following the Frascati Manual, the Survey covered business enterprises, government, higher education institutions, not-for-profit institutions and science councils.
The 2009/10 R&D survey records that SA's Gross Expenditure on Research and Development (GERD) amounted to R20.9 billion, a nominal decrease of R86 million from the R21.0 billion recorded for 2008/9. With the GERD as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at 0.87%, the findings indicate a third consecutive decline in the ratio, from 0.93% in 2007/8 and 0.92% in 2008/9.
It is the first time over the past decade that the survey recorded a nominal decline in overall R&D expenditure. A decline of 9.7% in business sector R&D expenditure, a significant contributor to R&D investment, is the primary driver of this trend. Notwithstanding an overall increase of just over R1.1 billion in expenditure within the public sector (i.e. government departments, higher education and science councils), this was not adequate to offset the decline of R1.4 billion in the business sector R&D and the not-for-profit sector expenditures.
R&D Survey Report 2011/2012 (full report, released March 2014)
R&D Survey Statistical Report 2011/2012 (released March 2014)
R&D Survey Report 2010/2011 (full report, released August 2013)
R&D Survey Statistical Report 2010/2011 (released August 2013)
High Level Key Results Booklet 2009/2010 (released March 2013)
R&D Survey Report 2009/2010 (full report, released April 2013)
Frascati Surveys have been carried out internationally for more than 40 years, but common understanding to what properly constitutes R&D remains somewhat problematic.
The Frascati Manual definition of R&D is as follows: “Research and Experimental Development (R&D) is creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock knowledge to devise new applications.”
As much care as possible is taken to develop a common understanding with the respondents of what properly constitutes R&D.
The Frascati Manual is extensive and complex, and considerable effort was invested in developing a User Guide, and supporting the sector participants in completing the questionnaires as fully and accurately as possible The Frascati Manual, however, provides a set of guidelines, not prescriptions.
It is noted that the survey time series was both interrupted (no data in 1999/2000) and subject to methodological variation, since it was executed by different agencies between 1991 and 2001.
This Survey confronted the dual role of conducting the Survey in parallel with capacity building.
Measurement and Design
The work of the Surveys entails the development of appropriate sector sampling methodologies (covered in the Survey Management and Results System database). The sampling methodology and measurement design were reviewed and approved by the DST Reference Committee.
Breaking down of R&D performers into five sectors represents a deliberate choice. In many OECD countries it is common practice to combine some of the five sectors. It was decided to avoid confusion by surveying the sectors separately as has been previous practice in South Africa
More information on the various sampling frames for the five sectors and survey instruments can be obtained by downloading the 2001/02 Report .
The results of all previous surveys are available for download in PDF format. This includes the high level results booklets and full survey reports for the 2001/02 Survey, the 2003/04 Survey, the 2004/05 Survey and the latest 2005/06 Survey. Visit the Previous Survey Reports page.
The frequently asked questions address anything from What is the purpose of the Research & Development Survey? to sector-specific definitions on what constitutes Research and Development. View the full list of FAQs here.
Disclaimer: Survey data may be freely used, subject to the acknowledgment of its source. Any interpretation or further analysis is the responsibility of the third party.