The South African 24-hour movement guidelines for birth to 5 years: results from the stakeholder consultation
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In 2018, South Africa developed 24-hour movement behavior guidelines for children from birth to 5 years. This study reports on the stakeholder consultation as part of this development process. An online survey was completed by 197 participants; 9 focus groups (with parents/caregivers, early childhood development practitioners, and community health workers, total n = 70) were conducted, and a meeting with stakeholders from government and nongovernment organizations (n = 15) was held. In the online survey, stakeholders overwhelmingly agreed with the guidelines (97.0%) and recognized the benefit of putting the guidelines into practice (88.8%). Most online survey respondents (88.3%) reported that the guidelines would benefit all South African children equally. Responses to open-ended questions in the online survey and focus group discussions revealed issues including safety and nutrition of children, perceived parental barriers to using the guidelines, and education. Training and provision of educational materials were identified from all stakeholders as key in the dissemination and implementation of the guidelines. The findings informed the development of the South African 24-hour movement behavior guidelines and revealed several important factors to address in the dissemination and implementation of the guidelines to ensure that they are applicable and equitable in South Africa.