Trends, prevalence and factors associated with hypertension and diabetes among South African adults living with HIV, 2005-2017
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Many people are now living longer with HIV due to access to antiretroviral treatment. In turn, there has been an increase in the burden of hypertension and diabetes. The paucity of data on the burden of hypertension and diabetes in adults living with HIV in South Africa is a public health concern. The paper aimed to describe the prevalence and factors associated with hypertension and diabetes among adults living with HIV (ALHI V). This was a secondary data analysis of the population based on the South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence, Behaviour and Communication surveys for 2005, 2008 and 2017. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise the characteristics of the study sample. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with hypertension and diabetes. The total study population of ALHIV aged 25 years and older was 978, 1023 and 2483 for 2005, 2008 and 2017. The prevalence of hypertension showed an increasing trend at 11.8% in 2005, 9.5% in 2008 and 14.3% in 2017. The prevalence of diabetes was 3.3% in 2005, 2.8% in 2008 and 3.2% in 2017. Increased odds of hypertension among adults living with HIV were consistently associated with being female and the age group 45 years older across all the survey years, including pensioners and the sick, living in urban areas, high risk of hazardous alcohol consumption, diabetes and heart disease. Increased odds of diabetes were consistently associated with hypertension across all the survey years, including age group 45 years and older, and poor health. While having a secondary level of education and above was protective against diabetes. The study showed that the prevalence of hypertension is high and has increased over time among adults living with HIV while the prevalence of diabetes has remained constant. Findings identified factors consistently associated with the prevalence of both diseases overtime, including contemporary risk factors that should be targeted in the integrated management of chronic disease and HIV care model.