Determinants of gender disparities in scaling up the first 90 towards the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets in South Africa: findings from the 2017 household-based national cross-sectional survey

SOURCE: AIDS Research and Therapy
OUTPUT TYPE: Journal Article
PUBLICATION YEAR: 2021
TITLE AUTHOR(S): S.Jooste, M.Mabaso, M.Taylor, A.North, Y.L.Shean, L.C.Simbayi
KEYWORDS: GENDER EQUALITY, HIV/AIDS, HIV/AIDS PREVENTION, HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS
DEPARTMENT: Human and Social Capabilities (HSC), Deputy CEO: Research (DCEO_R), Deputy CEO: Research (ERKC)
Print: HSRC Library: shelf number 12035
HANDLE: 20.500.11910/16073
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11910/16073

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Abstract

The first 90 of UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets to have 90% of the people living with HIV know their status is an important entry point to the HIV treatment cascade and care continuum, but evidence shows that there is a large gap between males and females in this regard. It is therefore important to understand barriers and facilitators of achieving the first 90 target. This study examined determinants of the first 90 target among females and males in order to inform strategies aimed at improving the HIV cascade in South Africa. The data used in the analysis were obtained from a 2017 household-based cross-sectional nationally representative survey conducted using a multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling design. A series of hierarchical multiple logistic regression models were fitted to identify the determinants of the first 90 target by gender. Overall, 84.8% of HIV-positive individuals aged 15 years and older were aware of their HIV status. Females were significantly more aware of their HIV status compared to males (88.7% vs 78.2%, p < 0.001). Both females aged 25 to 49 years [aOR = 3.20 (95% CI 1.35-7.57), p = 0.008], and 50 years and older [aOR = 3.19 (95% CI 1.04-9.76), p = 0.042] and males aged 25 to 49 years [aOR = 3.00 (95% CI 1.13-7.97), p = 0.028], and 50 years and older [aOR = 7.25 (95% CI 2.07-25.36), p = 0.002] were significantly more likely to know their HIV status compared to those aged 15 to 19 years. Males with tertiary education level were significantly more likely to be aware of their HIV positive status [aOR = 75.24 (95% CI 9.07-624.26), p < 0.001] compared to those with no education or with primary level education. Females with secondary [aOR = 3.28 (95% CI 1.20-8.99), p = 0.021] and matric [aOR = 4.35 (95% CI 1.54-12.37), p = 0.006] educational levels were significantly more likely to be aware of their HIV positive status, compared to those with no education or with primary level education. Significant progress has been made with regards to reaching the UNAIDS first 90 target. In this context achieving the first 90 target is feasible but there is a need for additional interventions to reach the males especially youth including those with no education or low levels of education.