Prevalence and behavioural risk factors of light or moderate and heavy cigarette smoking in 32 countries
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The aim of this study was to predict the prevalence of light or moderate and heavy smoking from lifestyle behavioural risk factors among South African adults compared to others from 31 countries around the world. Secondary data from 53 391 adults who completed the International Social Survey Program (ISSP), 2011-2013, Health and Health Care Module were accessed for this study (South Africans, N = 3 004). Findings from multinomial logistic regression with adjustment for personal factors (e.g. physical and psychological well-being variables) were used to explain a significant proportion of both light or moderate smoking and heavy smoking among South African adults as well as adults from the other countries. Specifically, lifestyle factors of being underweight and overweight or obese were negatively associated with light or moderate smoking, but body mass index (BMI) weight status was not associated with heavy smoking. Smoking interventions should target modifiable lifestyle factors to prevent risk for light or moderate smoking and heavy smoking.