Dietary fiber intake and metabolic syndrome risk factors among young South African adults
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This study attempts to bridge the research gap regarding the importance of dietary ???ber in reducing metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in young rural South Africans. A total of 627 individuals (309 males and 318 females) aged 18???30 years participated in the study. Dietary intake was measured using a validated 24-h recall method. The consumption of different types of dietary ???ber (total, soluble, and insoluble) was calculated and presented as grams. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and lipid pro???les were measured according to standard protocols. According to the de???nition of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the prevalence of MetS was 23.1%. Overall, the total median [interquartile range (IQR)] values for total, insoluble, and soluble ???ber consumed were 4.6 g [0.0???48.9], 0.0 g [0.0???18.0], and 0.0 g [0.0???15.0], respectively. Females had a higher median [IQR] intake of total (5.1 g [0.0???48.9] vs. 4.3 g [0.0???43.9]), insoluble (0.0 g [0.0???18.0] vs. 0.0 g [0.0???12.0]), and soluble ???ber (0.0 g [0.0???14.9] vs. 0.0 g [0.0???7.3]) than males, respectively. The mean values for waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol were higher in females than males (82.20 cm vs. 75.07 cm; 5.59 mmol/L vs. 5.44 mmol/L; and 4.26 mmol/L vs. 4.03 mmol/L, respectively), with signi???cant differences observed for waist circumference and total cholesterol (p < 0.001 and p = 0.005, respectively). More than 97% of participants had ???ber intakes below the recommended levels. After adjusting for all potential confounders (age, gender, and energy), log total ???ber was inversely associated with fasting blood glucose (?? =???0.019, 95% CI [???0.042 t o0.003],p<0.05),systolic blood pressure(?? =???0.002,95%CI[???0.050 to 0.002],p<0.05)and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (?? =???0.085, 95% CI [???0.173 to 0.002], p = 0.051) This study may be of public health relevance, providing a potential link between less dietary ???ber intake and fasting blood glucose (FBG) and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Therefore, this observational data encourages public health policy measures to increase the consumption of dietary ???ber in rural communities in order to lower the burden of MetS and its associated risk factors.