Universities as city-builders: the city-campus development opportunity in East London's Buffalo City, South Africa
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This article explores the city-campus dynamic in East London's inner city in the light of international experiences and investigates the place-based opportunities for higher education institutions to play a more instrumental role in shaping the economic development and the urban built environment in this struggling former industrial city. At a wider national level, the article is intended as a case study that will allow scholars and planners to reflect on whether South Africa's higher education and city planning policy frameworks and approaches are designed to respond effectively to recent economic change in cities and regions and are positively aligned with local place-based development challenges. The article highlights the potential for the use of both anchor and innovation district strategies in the city, but does not prescribe a particular model or solution.