Risk factors for prescription drug diversion among people living with HIV: a systematic scoping review
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In addition to numerous infections and frequent pain constantly affecting people living with HIV (PLWH), various risk factors might contribute to prescription drug diversion. The purpose of the study is to map existing evidence on risk factors contributing to prescription drug diversion among PLWH. Arksey and O'Malley's framework and the recommendation by Levac et al. (2010) guided this study. We searched for relevant literature from the following databases: PubMed; Google Scholar; EBSCOhost (Academic Search Complete, MEDLINE and Newspaper Source), Cochrane, WHO, HIV, ScienceDirect and Open Access Theses and Dissertations. Studies reporting evidence on risk factors contributing to prescription drug diversion and published in the period January 1996 to July 2017 were included. Thematic content analysis was performed to summarize the findings. The search identified 734 studies. After full-text screening of the eligible studies, risk factors contributing to prescription drug diversion among PLWH were reported in 20 included studies. It was found that there is limited research on prescription drug diversion among PLWH in low-middle-income countries (LMICs). Risk factors contributing to prescription drug diversion were being a substance user or substance dependent; being male; young in age; being stigmatized; not disclosed HIV status; diagnosed with mental health problems; being HIV infected; poor health and well being; being White; being homeless or not owing a home; having low educational level; having history of diversion, misuse or abuse; in possession of addictive prescriptions; being unemployed and living in high neighbourhood disorder. Evidence shows that there is limited research on prescription drug diversion among PLWH in LMICs. The study findings show that the risk factors contributing to prescription drug diversion are related with risk factors for HIV transmission and infection.